All the information below is strictly for research purposes only. Under no circumstance should this chemical be used for human consumption.
ACTH-1-39, also known as Adrenocorticotropic hormone, binds primarily with melanocortin receptors and facilitates release of corticosteroids and androgens. ACTH 1-39 contains 39 amino acids. The hormone plays a vital role in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome by altering HPA stress axis in the brain. The research community is studying other physiological effects of the hormone. ACTH 1-39 should be used only for research purposes.
ACTH acts via stimulation of the cell surface adrenocorticotropin hormone receptors, which are based on the adrenocortical cells in the adrenal cortex. When the cells are excited, they result in the production and secretion of mineralo-corticosteroids, gluco-cortiscosteroids, and adrenogenic steroids. The receptors are made up of 7-member G-protein coupled receptor, which changes its conformation when ACTH acts on it, this leads to the stimulation and secretion of adenylyl cyclase, adenylyl cyclase is responsible for the increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP and the subsequent activation of PKA or protein kinase A.
When PKA is activated steroidogenesis, process begins. Technically the steroids are derived from cholesterol. Some of the products of steroidogenesis include testosterone, estrogens, progesterone, aldosterone, and cortisol. ACTH acts on the various steps in the steroidogenic pathway occurring in the adrenal cortex by stimulating the uptake of lipoprotein in the steroidogenic pathway, this in turn increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the adrenal cells. Moreover, ACTH activates the transport of the cholesterol to the mitochondria, which is important in accentuating hydrolysis. This is essential in stimulating cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, which plays a crucial role in the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis; this in turn results in the production of pregnenolone. Inadequate production or lack of response to ACTH is seen in hypothalamic axis disorders. Studies are being conducted on the possibility of administering of ACTH to alleviate the problem.
Molecular weight: 4541.1
Peptide purity: > 99.0%
What is ACTH 1-39?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a peptide that is produced by the pituitary gland. ACTH 1-39 has a molecular formula consisting of C207H308N56O58S1 and molecular mass of 45.411-kilo Daltons. ACTH 1-39 is one of the components of the hypothalamic and adrenal axis. When the levels of the hormone are high then system releases a high amount of corticosteroids. This is the natural response to stress in the system and this usually happens at the adrenal cortex. The peptide has a wide array of mechanisms in accentuating the release of the corticosteroids. A common mechanism of action is via the binding of cellular receptors. When the cells undergo activation, it results in a wide array of biological processes and the secretion of androgenic steroids, mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids. Adrenocorticotropin hormone is important in a biological system and it is composed of seven amino acids which work via G-protein coupled receptors. Once the peptide binds to the ligand, the ligand undergoes a transformation and the conformational change is important in the production of catalase enzyme.
Adenylate cyclase production is vital because it helps in increasing the intracellular levels of adenosine monophosphate. When the levels of adenosine monophosphate increase in the system it results in the activation of protein kinase A or PKA. When protein kinase A is activated it causes a complex signaling pathway to be activated, this is crucial because it induces a pathway, which results in the initiation of the steroidogenesis process. The cholesterol is converted to different body components. It is important to note that the final product of this mechanism varies from species to species and depending on the species, the compound produced will vary. In some scenarios, the product may include cortisol, corticoids, testosterone, progesterone, and other compounds, which are essential in a biological system. The peptide acts on various steps in the system, which is important in the production of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex. Moreover, the peptide accentuates the increase of lipoprotein formation and an enhanced lipid intake. ACTH is vital in increasing the level of cholesterol transported in the mitochondria and it is here that it undergoes activation and hydrolysis process.
How Is ACTH 1-39 Related To Stress?
There are numerous causes of stress and in the modern society. Environmental and physical stress can contribute to various problems in a biological system. The response to the stressors determines how the cells will respond to a certain environment they are forced to adopt. In situations where the cells undergo excessive stress or are damage, it will affect other parts of the body. Research shows that the response to an increase of stress in the system plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In addition, it helps in maintaining a resting state and biological system response to different stressors. The main component in response to the stress system is through the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis or HPA. This is one of the most important components in dealing with various modes of stress and stress related conditions. Recent studies done on mice shows that the response to harmful or stressful stimuli usually occurs when the neuronal inputs from the central and peripheral nervous system converted in the small nucleus in paraventricular nucleolus to a signal.
When the paraventricular nucleolus is signaled, it induces a cascade of communication systems, which aid in the release of corticotropin stimulating hormone or CRH. This is a 41 amino acid peptide and it is released into the hypophyseal blood, and then transported to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The peptide binds to the CRH receptors on the corticotropes and it accentuates the release of the hormone. Just like any other G-coupled protein, the CRH receptors are important in stimulating the release of the intracellular messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate. When this pathway is activated, it causes an increase in the level or proopiomelanocortin. An increase in the level of the POMC causes the activation and the release of ACTH hormone from the beta-endorphins. Although, CRH is regarded as the main hypothalamic releasing factor peptide other compounds such as norepinephrine, oxytocin, vasopressin, and other components also play a role in accentuating the release of the hormone from the gland.
When ACTH 1-39 is administered to the system, it is carried to the adrenal cortex. Once it is on the adrenal cortex, it stimulates the release of various glucocorticoids, studies shows that the peptide enhances the production of corticosterone. Glucocorticoids have an immediate metabolic effect on the biological systems and in most cases. It stimulates protein catabolism and inhibits the intake of glucose to the peripheral organs.
Role of ACTH in Cellular Response
Recent research shows that ACTH 1-39 is important in accentuation various aspects in a biological environment. The HPA axis important in giving certain responses to certain conditions. When the glucocorticoids are released, it is important for turning off the stress signals from the system, an elevated level of glucocorticoids reduces the synthesis and the release of CRH from the hypothalamus and this, in turn, suppresses the production and POMC from the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids play an important role in feeding higher brain centers and it allows the modulation of the neural inputs to the hypothalamus area. This is a finely-tuned system, which allows the organism to respond to various environmental changes. Moreover, the response to the environmental changes is essential because it prevents cellular damage and cell death. Any
alteration to the HPA system causes a negative feedback stimulation, which results in no, or failure to adapt to the changes and this results in cellular death.
When the response system is affected, it results in poor or failure of the mechanical systems and this contributes to conditions such as depression, anxiety disorder, anorexia, Cushing’s syndrome among others. Researchers are looking for modern and better avenues of using ACTH peptide in combating various ailments as indicated previously. Understanding the mechanism of action is vital in bringing the changes to the system and allows the organism to survive in any condition. Changes in the glucocorticoids statues of the organism also change POMC synthesis in the system. The contribution of the hypothalamic CRH and the peripheral glucocorticoids brings the desired effect on the organism and it is through these systems that the changes in the system can occur. Studies conducted to determine the potency and the efficacy of the peptide vial the alteration of the corticosterone in the system shows to be effective in combating various conditions.
Studies show that the peptide can accentuate the release of important glucocorticoids that can help in alleviating various conditions. The plasma levels of the hormone ACTH in the system was high even with the absence of CRH. This brings a new dimension to the research of the peptides, especially in modern science and research. According to the results, CRH-deficient mice show an alteration and the regulation of the peripheral glucocorticoids and this regulates ACTH and POMC production. Although it is often associated with an increase in secretion and the synthesis, the events pinpoint to a new change in research and development. The anterior pituitary gland cell cultures show that the cell cultures are calcium dependent and type of alteration in the system will result in the increasing the secretion of the hormone. The ACTH activity is calcium-dependent and the scientists are looking at an avenue of circumnavigating the various scientific phenomena to improve the activity of the peptide. Research is still underway to determine the efficacy and the potency of the peptide in alleviating various conditions in a biological system.